Islamic almanac also known as Muslim almanac or Hijri almanac is an astral almanac that consists of 12 months in a year with 354 or 355 days. Islamic calendar is used in different Muslim realms to determine dates of Islamic festivals and important days such as Ramadan, Hajj, Muharram etc. First Islamic year was started in AD 622 during the evacuation of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) from Mecca to Medina. Muslim almanac is typically known as Hijri almanac in the Islamic countries. Existing Islamic year 1434 AH was started at 14 November 2012 (evening) and will end at 4 November 2013 (evening).
Months of Islamic Year
There are 12 months in the Islamic calendar from which four months are really sanctified. Following are names of Hijri months in Arabic:
- Muharram (A battle was set in this month and this month includes Day of Ashura also).
- Safar (It is named because pagan Arabs plundered during this month).
- Rabbi Ul Awwal (First spring and Muslims celebrate birth of their beloved Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him).
- Rabi Ul Akhir (Second or Last Spring).
- Jamadi Ul Ula (First month of scorched land means it is the time of pre-Islamic summer).
- Jamadi Ul Akhira (Second month of parched land).
- Rajab (Rajab means respect or honor and this is one of the sacred month of Islam in which fighting is traditionally forbidden.)
- Shaban (Shaban means scattered that is marked as time of year when Arab tribes dispersed to find water.)
- Ramadan (It is the most respected month of the Islamic almanac in which followers of Islam keep fast from dawn till dusk and give donations to poor people.)
- Shawwal (Shawwal means raised in which she-camels would be in calf at this time of year.)
- Dhu Al Qada (It is another month during which war was banned.)
- Dhu Al Hijjah (It is one of the pilgrimage that refers the year in which Muslims pilgrimage to Mecca for Hajj.)
Tips to Design Islamic Calendar
- Tabular Islamic almanac is designed with rule-based distinctions according to new moon. Variations of Islamic calendar are known as tabular Islamic calendar in which months are determined by arithmetic rule instead of observation or astronomical calculation. Its leap year has 355 days and comes after cycle of 30 year. It is precise to one day in about 2,500 years and it diverges up to about one to two days in the short term.
- In order to design Islamic calendar, it is important to look up the date of new moon and you can take help from U.S. Naval Observatory website that provides important information for the designing of Hijri calendar.
- Divide your calendar in 12 months of Islamic year and write days of week in the first row. Calculate the first month and count back from current position such as if the age of moon is seven days and it is Monday then count reverse six days and place 1 which will also be on Monday.
Here is preview of a free Islamic Calendar Template created using MS Excel,
Here is download link for this Islamic Calendar Template,